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新編大學英語閱讀部分第二冊Unit04-2

Unit 4
Learning Skills

After-Class Reading

PASSAGE I Myths and Misconceptions about Reading

New Words

apply *
v. bring or put into use or operation 運用,應用
e.g. Would you apply this rule to everyone?

assign *
v. 布置(作業)
e.g. He assigned the students a few books to read.

choke *
v. 說不出話來
e.g. He choked with anger.

comprehension *
n. the ability to understand 理解(力)
e.g. The problem is beyond my comprehension.

consciously *
adv. 有意識地,自覺地
e.g. These ideas are not learnt consciously.

cram
v. 突擊式學習(尤指為應考)

deduce *
v. (formal)演繹,推論
e.g. What do you deduce from these facts?

disregard *
v. pay no attention to, ignore 不理會,忽視
e.g. He disregarded my feelings in this matter.

external *
adj. 外部的,外面的
e.g. external causes

imitate *
v. 模仿
e.g. His handwriting is difficult to imitate.

intricacy
n. (often plural)錯綜復雜的事物

learner *
n. 學習者

lookout
n. 留神觀察

memorize
v. learn and remember (words, etc.) on purpose 記住

oral *
adj. not written, spoken 口頭的
e.g. An oral agreement is not enough; we must have a written promise.

personally *
adv. in person 親自,親身
e.g. I have to hand it to him personally.

preference *
n. 偏愛
e.g. It doesn't matter to me, I have no preference.

proceed *
v. go on, move forward, advance (繼續)進行
e.g. Should we proceed with the plan as agreed?

receptive
adj. 愿意接受的

repetition *
n. 重復
e.g. Repetition helps learning.

retain *
v. keep (something) in one's memory 記住
e.g. I have a good memory and am able to retain facts easily.

specifically *
adv. concerning or intended for one particular type of person or thing only 特別,專門
e.g. This dictionary is specifically intended for foreign learners of English.

translation *
n. 翻譯

vocabulary *
n. 詞匯

weekly *
adj. 每星期的
e.g. His weekly wage is $ 300.



Myths and Misconceptions about Reading

Myth One: Concentrating on Each Word in Print Aids Comprehension and Memory

If you concentrate on each word in print, you create comprehension problems for yourself. In addition, you may find that you often read a passage but cannot recall much of it. This frustrates many readers. Research shows that the brain, in just one second, can sort out 100 million separate messages, distinguishing between the important and the unimportant. The inefficient reader sends to the brain such "weak signals"—seemingly unrelated chunks of information—that the brain loses its focus on reading and gets distracted or bored. The eyes continue to look at the print but the brain wanders [1]: thinking, planning, and daydreaming about unrelated topics. If you are unable to concentrate while reading or become easily bored or restless, you are probably reading too slowly to engage your mind.
You do not speak in a robot-like fashion [2] or stop between each word when you talk. You usually speak in groups of words. Since you think in similar fashion, why not read the same way—in idea clusters? It is the natural way to read. Your comprehension will improve if you learn to read for meaning and concentrate on ideas, not words. Long, difficult sentences are more easily understood if you "chunk [3]" the information into meaningful phrases. This practice, extended to all your reading, enables you to read more rapidly.

Myth Two: The Only Way to Read Anything Is Slowly and Carefully

Many students read everything at the same habitual rate—slowly—whether it's the TV guide, the evening newspaper, a textbook, or a novel. Skillful readers, however, learn that there is more than just one way to read. They are flexible, that is, they read different kinds of materials in different ways. They vary their rate, depending on two main factors: the difficulty of the material and their purpose in reading.
Do you silently say the words or need to hear each word when you read? Then you are limiting yourself to a speed at which average people speak—fewer than 200 words a minute. You may either be vocalizing—moving your lips and saying the words in a whisper—or you may be subvocalizing—hearing them in your head. While you cannot eliminate mentally hearing all words when you read, too much subvocalization reduces your reading rate by as much as 50 percent. Good readers tend to concentrate only on key words, those words that give important meaning to the passage.

Myth Three: Going Back over Just-Read Material Improves Understanding

If you have the habit of constantly and needlessly going back and rereading parts of the sentence, not only will you be reading slowly but you may also have trouble understanding what you are reading. The smooth, logical flow of thought is broken if you continuously go back over sentences while reading.
Many people reread because they lack the confidence to believe they can understand what they read the first time around. At times, rereading is necessary to understand difficult material or to remember additional details. But the type of rereading discussed here is an unnecessary, unconscious habit.

Myth Four: Comprehension Decreases as Rate Increases

Often students say with great pride that they read slowly because they want to be sure to get the full meaning and remember every single word. Actually, by trying to digest every word, these students slow down their comprehension and often find themselves confused and disinterested.
Readers who absorb 80 percent of what they read have very good comprehension. Striving for 100 percent all the time makes you read much more slowly than is necessary. If you try to remember everything, you can wind up remembering very little and become frustrated because of the tremendous task you have imposed on yourself. The faster, more efficient reader usually has far better comprehension than the very slow reader.

Myth Five: It Is Physically Impossible to Read Rapidly Because Your Eyes Cannot Move That Quickly

Eye movement studies disprove this notion. The average college freshman reads around 200 to 250 words per minute, but these studies indicate that it is physically possible for the eyes to see and transmit printed information to the brain at rates as high as 900 to 1,000 words per minute. Beyond this rate students engage in subskills of reading: scanning (searching for a fact or item), skimming (looking for the main ideas), and skipping (getting an overview). People who use the three S's are not engaged in thorough reading, but they are often using reading skills in a highly effective way.
Reading takes place when the eyes and mind work together: While the eyes do from 5 to 10 percent of the work, the brain does the remaining 90 percent. The brain scans, sorts, selects, samples, and finally assimilates information. So the main limitations in rapid reading are your own slow eye movements and a lack of belief that you can read faster.

Myth Six: Faster Reading Takes the Pleasure Out of Reading

It is wrong to assume that fast readers move so rapidly through print they never stop to reflect and "drink in" a favorite passage or a difficult one. Efficient readers have learned how to speed up or slow down at will, while slow readers are prisoners to slowness.
Slow readers rarely have the experience of reading a novel or a short story at one sitting. Have you ever watched a favorite movie, one you had seen in the theater, on TV? Isn't the intensity of the mood, the flow of the dialogue, the interaction of the characters, the action of the plot rudely disturbed by all those commercials? [4] The same can be true when a novel is read too slowly—if you always need to put it down after reading a small portion of the story. When reading more rapidly becomes automatic, you derive more pleasure from reading than when you read too slowly.


Phrases and Expressions

all at once
一下子
e.g. Don't eat them all at once; save some for later.

be on the lookout for
留心觀察
e.g. If you're there during a peak travel (旅游高峰) period, be on the lookout for thieves.

choke up
become speechless 說不出話來
e.g. He choked up and couldn't finish his speech.

go about (doing) something
set about (doing) something 著手(干)某事
e.g. How do you go about building a boat?

sink in
(of words, etc.) be fully understood 被完全理解
e.g. I think the lesson has sunk in; he won't make the same mistake again.

slow down
放慢,使慢下來
e.g. All this conversation slows down the action of the play.

stick to
not give up 堅持
e.g. We've decided to stick to our previous plan.

tailor something to somebody/something
make or adapt something for a special purpose 使某事物適合某人/某事物的需要
e.g. He tailored his way of living to his income.

take charge of
take control of 控制或掌管
e.g. I was asked to take charge of the department.


PASSAGE II Myths and Misconceptions about Reading

New Words

assimilate *
v. absorb (ideas, knowledge, etc.) in the mind 吸收(思想、知識等)
e.g. A good student assimilates knowledge quickly.

automatic *
adj.
1) working by itself without direct human control 自動(化)的
e.g. Modern trains have automatic doors, but passengers can open and close them at the stations.
2) done without conscious thought, especially as a habit 不經思索的,習慣性的
e.g. He was so used to driving that it had become automatic.

chunk *
v. (informal) a big piece or large amount 一厚塊
e.g. I ) She gave me a chunk of cake.
II ) Cleaning my room took a chunk out of the day.

cluster *
n. a group of things that are very close together 群,組

continuously *
adv. 連續不斷地
e.g. You can't work continuously for six hours without a single break-it's impossible.

digest *
v.
1) 消化(食物)
e.g. Do not give the baby meat to eat, because he cannot digest it.
2) fully understand 完全理解,徹底領會
e.g. He read rapidly but did not digest anything.

disinterested
adj. 不感興趣的,失去興趣的

disprove
v. prove (something) false or wrong 證明某事物不正確

distinguish *
v. recognize differences (between) 區別
e.g. It's important to distinguish between business and pleasure.

distracted
adj. 注意力分散的,思想不集中的

flexible *
adj. willing and able to change according to different circumstances 能隨機應變的,有靈活性的
e.g. We've arranged to go to the cinema on Thursday, but we are flexible and can go another day.

frustrate *
v. upset or discourage (somebody) 使沮喪,使灰心
e.g. She was frustrated by the amount of criticism her play received.

impose *
v. 加 (負擔、懲罰等) 于
e.g. The present problem was imposed on him.

inefficient *
adj. 效率低的
e.g. The existing methods of production are expensive and inefficient.

misconception *
n. a wrong idea one has about something 誤解,錯誤想法
e.g. A number of people suffer from the misconception that productivity equals efficiency.

needlessly *
adv. 毫無必要地
e.g. She'd worried quite needlessly about whether there would be enough food for everyone-there was plenty.

overview
n. short formal general description (without unnecessary details) 概觀,概述

robot *
n. 機器人
e.g. Japanese industry is making increasing use of robots.

rudely *
adv. 粗暴地
e.g. He felt that he had been wrong in pushing them away so rudely.

skim *
v. read something quickly, noting only the main points 瀏覽
e.g. Don't read the report word for word now, just skim it.

skip *
v. omit (part of a book when reading) 跳過(不看)

subskill
n. 亞技能

subvocalization
n. 默讀

subvocalize
v. 默讀

thorough *
adj. done completely and with great attention to detail 徹底的,細致的
e.g. They made a thorough search of the house.

topic *
n. 話題
e.g. They discussed the weather and other topics.

transmit *
v. send or pass something from one person, place or thing to another 傳送,輸送
e.g. Water transmits sound.

unconscious *
adj. 無意識的,不能覺察的
e.g. John has the unconscious habit of tapping (輕敲) his fingers on the desk.

unimportant *
adj. not important 無關緊要的

unrelated
adj. 無關的,不相關的

vary *
v. cause to become different 改變
e.g. He varies the treatment according to circumstances.

vocalize *
v. 發聲



Myths and Misconceptions about Reading

Myth One: Concentrating on Each Word in Print Aids Comprehension and Memory

If you concentrate on each word in print, you create comprehension problems for yourself. In addition, you may find that you often read a passage but cannot recall much of it. This frustrates many readers. Research shows that the brain, in just one second, can sort out 100 million separate messages, distinguishing between the important and the unimportant. The inefficient reader sends to the brain such "weak signals"—seemingly unrelated chunks of information—that the brain loses its focus on reading and gets distracted or bored. The eyes continue to look at the print but the brain wanders [1]: thinking, planning, and daydreaming about unrelated topics. If you are unable to concentrate while reading or become easily bored or restless, you are probably reading too slowly to engage your mind.
You do not speak in a robot-like fashion [2] or stop between each word when you talk. You usually speak in groups of words. Since you think in similar fashion, why not read the same way—in idea clusters? It is the natural way to read. Your comprehension will improve if you learn to read for meaning and concentrate on ideas, not words. Long, difficult sentences are more easily understood if you "chunk [3]" the information into meaningful phrases. This practice, extended to all your reading, enables you to read more rapidly.

Myth Two: The Only Way to Read Anything Is Slowly and Carefully

Many students read everything at the same habitual rate—slowly—whether it's the TV guide, the evening newspaper, a textbook, or a novel. Skillful readers, however, learn that there is more than just one way to read. They are flexible, that is, they read different kinds of materials in different ways. They vary their rate, depending on two main factors: the difficulty of the material and their purpose in reading.
Do you silently say the words or need to hear each word when you read? Then you are limiting yourself to a speed at which average people speak—fewer than 200 words a minute. You may either be vocalizing—moving your lips and saying the words in a whisper—or you may be subvocalizing—hearing them in your head. While you cannot eliminate mentally hearing all words when you read, too much subvocalization reduces your reading rate by as much as 50 percent. Good readers tend to concentrate only on key words, those words that give important meaning to the passage.

Myth Three: Going Back over Just-Read Material Improves Understanding

If you have the habit of constantly and needlessly going back and rereading parts of the sentence, not only will you be reading slowly but you may also have trouble understanding what you are reading. The smooth, logical flow of thought is broken if you continuously go back over sentences while reading.
Many people reread because they lack the confidence to believe they can understand what they read the first time around. At times, rereading is necessary to understand difficult material or to remember additional details. But the type of rereading discussed here is an unnecessary, unconscious habit.

Myth Four: Comprehension Decreases as Rate Increases

Often students say with great pride that they read slowly because they want to be sure to get the full meaning and remember every single word. Actually, by trying to digest every word, these students slow down their comprehension and often find themselves confused and disinterested.
Readers who absorb 80 percent of what they read have very good comprehension. Striving for 100 percent all the time makes you read much more slowly than is necessary. If you try to remember everything, you can wind up remembering very little and become frustrated because of the tremendous task you have imposed on yourself. The faster, more efficient reader usually has far better comprehension than the very slow reader.

Myth Five: It Is Physically Impossible to Read Rapidly Because Your Eyes Cannot Move That Quickly

Eye movement studies disprove this notion. The average college freshman reads around 200 to 250 words per minute, but these studies indicate that it is physically possible for the eyes to see and transmit printed information to the brain at rates as high as 900 to 1,000 words per minute. Beyond this rate students engage in subskills of reading: scanning (searching for a fact or item), skimming (looking for the main ideas), and skipping (getting an overview). People who use the three S's are not engaged in thorough reading, but they are often using reading skills in a highly effective way.
Reading takes place when the eyes and mind work together: While the eyes do from 5 to 10 percent of the work, the brain does the remaining 90 percent. The brain scans, sorts, selects, samples, and finally assimilates information. So the main limitations in rapid reading are your own slow eye movements and a lack of belief that you can read faster.

Myth Six: Faster Reading Takes the Pleasure Out of Reading

It is wrong to assume that fast readers move so rapidly through print they never stop to reflect and "drink in" a favorite passage or a difficult one. Efficient readers have learned how to speed up or slow down at will, while slow readers are prisoners to slowness.
Slow readers rarely have the experience of reading a novel or a short story at one sitting. Have you ever watched a favorite movie, one you had seen in the theater, on TV? Isn't the intensity of the mood, the flow of the dialogue, the interaction of the characters, the action of the plot rudely disturbed by all those commercials? [4] The same can be true when a novel is read too slowly—if you always need to put it down after reading a small portion of the story. When reading more rapidly becomes automatic, you derive more pleasure from reading than when you read too slowly.


Phrases and Expressions

at one sitting
without stopping 一口氣地
e.g. I enjoyed the book so much that I read it all at one sitting.

at times
sometimes 有時候
e.g. I do feel a little nervous at times.

at will
wherever, whenever, etc. one pleases 隨意,任意
e.g. You may come and go at will.

derive... from
obtain... from, get... from 從......獲取,從......得到
e.g. She derives great satisfaction from her coin collection.

drink in
watch or listen to something with great pleasure or interest 陶醉于,欣賞
e.g. The tourist stood there drinking in the beauty of the landscape.

in print
印出來
e.g. The story of the students' trip to Washington appeared in print in the newspaper.

sort out
arrange in order, organize 整理
e.g. It takes me some time to sort out my thoughts before I can start writing.

strive for
try very hard (to obtain or achieve something) 爭取,努力得到
e.g. The history of railway transport has partly been a history of striving for greater efficiency.

wind up
結果......,最后(陷入某種狀態)
e.g. I never dreamed that I would wind up owning such a big company.
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